Publication Details

The Hybrid Model for Water Services Regulation: Mission Impossible?

The two main approaches to economic regulation—regulation by contract and regulation by agency—may both encounter significant challenges in regulating public-private partnerships when institutions are weak. As a result, the hybrid model, a mixture of elements from both systems, is widespread. This paper considers hybrid regulation as a distinct regulatory model. A case study of water services regulation in Manila from 1997 to 2015 suggests that hybrid regulation is both possible and compelling. Yet, while it might help to expedite private-sector involvement initially, fundamental tensions between the two underlying approaches may undermine PPP sustainability if not addressed appropriately at the outset.

Author Last NamesJensen, Wu
Journal NameUtilities Policy
Year of Publication2016
Keywordseconomic regulation, PPP, water supply

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